Mechanism of Action of Active Compounds
Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, has therapeutics implication in the diseases prevention and treatment. But the exact molecular mechanism in the prevention of pathogenesis is not understood entirely. It is considered that Azadirachta indica shows therapeutic role due to the rich source of antioxidant and other valuable active compounds such as azadirachtin, nimbolinin, nimbin, nimbidin, nimbidol, salannin, and quercetin.
Possible mechanism of action of Azadirachta indica is presented as follows.
Neem (Azadirachta indica) plants parts shows antimicrobial role through inhibitory effect on microbial growth/potentiality of cell wall breakdown. Azadirachtin, a complex tetranortriterpenoid limonoid present in seeds, is the key constituent responsible for both antifeedant and toxic effects in insects . Results suggest that the ethanol extract of neem leaves showed in vitro antibacterial activity against bothStaphylococcus aureus and MRSA with greatest zones of inhibition noted at 100% concentration .
- Neem plays role as free radical scavenging properties due to rich source of antioxidant. Azadirachtin and nimbolide showed concentration-dependent antiradical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the following order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate .
- Neem ingredient shows effective role in the management of cancer through the regulation of cell signaling pathways. Neem modulates the activity of various tumour suppressor genes (e.g., p53, pTEN), angiogenesis (VEGF), transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB), and apoptosis .
- Neem also plays role as anti-inflammatory via regulation of proinflammatory enzyme activities including cyclooxygenase (COX), and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme.
Popularity of natural products or their derivatives role in diseases cure and prevention is increasing worldwide due to less side effect properties. Neem and its ingredients have therapeutics implication and have been traditionally used worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent since ancient time. Clinical based studies confirmed that neem plays pivotal role in prevention of various diseases. The role of active ingredients as chemopreventive effect has been noticed in various tumour via modulation of numerous cell signaling pathways. The detailed study should be made based on animal to know the exact mechanism of action in the diseases management.